a way to improve your English



From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Scotland (disambiguation).
Scotland  (English/Scots)
Alba  (Scottish Gaelic)
Flag Royal Standard
MottoIn My Defens God Me Defend (Scots)
(often shown abbreviated as IN DEFENS)
AnthemNone (de jure)
Various de facto – see National anthem of Scotland and note 1
Location of  Scotland  (orange)– in the European continent  (camel & white)– in the United Kingdom  (camel)
Location of  Scotland  (orange)– in the European continent  (camel & white)
– in the United Kingdom  (camel)

Capital Edinburgh
55°57′N 3°12′W
Largest city Glasgow
Official language(s) English
Recognised regional languages Gaelic, Scots2
Ethnic groups 89% Scottish, 7% English, Irish, Welsh, 4% other[1]
Demonym Scots, Scottish3
Government Devolved Government within a Constitutional monarchy4
 – Monarch Elizabeth II
 – First Minister Alex Salmond MSP
 – Prime Minister of the United Kingdom David Cameron, MP
Legislature Scottish Parliament
Establishment Early Middle Ages; exact date of establishment unclear or disputed; traditional 843, by King Kenneth MacAlpin[2]
 – Total 78,772 km2
30,414 sq mi
 – Water (%) 1.9
 – mid-2010 estimate 5,222,100[3]
 – 2001 census 5,062,011
 – Density 65.9/km2
170.8/sq mi
GDP (nominal) 2006 estimate
 – Total GBP 124 billion[4]
Currency Pound sterling (GBP)
Time zone GMT (UTC0)
 – Summer (DST) BST (UTC+1)
Drives on the left
ISO 3166 code GB
Internet TLD .uk5
Calling code 44
Patron saint St Andrew[5]
St Margaret
St Columba
1 Flower of Scotland, Scotland the Brave and Scots Wha Hae have been used in lieu of an official anthem.
2 Both Scots and Scottish Gaelic are officially recognised as autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages;[6] the Bòrd na Gàidhlig is tasked, under the Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act 2005, with securing Gaelic as an official language of Scotland, commanding “equal respect” with English.[7]
3 Historically, the use of “Scotch” as an adjective comparable to “Scottish” was commonplace, particularly outwith Scotland. However, the modern use of the term describes only products of Scotland, usually food or drink related.
4 Scotland’s head of state is the monarch of the United Kingdom, currently Queen Elizabeth II (since 1952). Scotland has limited self-government within the United Kingdom as well as representation in the UK Parliament. It is also a UK electoral region for the European Parliament. Executive and legislative powers have been devolved to, respectively, the Scottish Government and the Scottish Parliament at Holyrood in Edinburgh.
5 Also .eu, as part of the European Union. ISO 3166-1 is GB, but .gb is unused.

Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: Alba, Scottish Gaelic pronunciation: [ˈalˠ̪apə]) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.[8][9][10] Occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain, it shares a border with England to the south and is bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the southwest. In addition to the mainland, Scotland includes over 790 islands[11] including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides.

Edinburgh, the country’s capital and second largest city, is one of Europe‘s largest financial centres.[12] Edinburgh was the hub of the Scottish Enlightenment of the 18th century, which transformed Scotland into one of the commercial, intellectual and industrial powerhouses of Europe. Glasgow, Scotland’s largest city, was once one of the world’s leading industrial cities and now lies at the centre of the Greater Glasgow conurbation. Scottish waters consist of a large sector[13] of the North Atlantic and the North Sea, containing the largest oil reserves in the European Union. This has given Aberdeen, the third largest city in Scotland, the title of Europe’s oil capital.[14]

The Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707, although it had been in a personal union with the kingdoms of England and Ireland since James VI of Scotland succeeded to the English and Irish thrones in 1603. On 1 May 1707, Scotland entered into an incorporating political union with England to create the united Kingdom of Great Britain.[15][16] This union resulted from the Treaty of Union agreed in 1706 and enacted by the twin Acts of Union passed by the Parliaments of both countries, despite widespread protest across Scotland.[17][18] Scotland’s legal system continues to be separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland, and Scotland constitutes a distinct jurisdiction in public and in private law.[19]

The continued existence of legal, educational and religious institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the Union.[20] In 1999, a devolved legislature, the Scottish Parliament, was founded with authority over many areas of home affairs following a successful referendum in 1997. Issues surrounding devolution and independence continue to be debated. The Scottish National Party won an overall majority in the 2011 Scottish Parliament election,[21] and have announced their intention to hold a referendum on independence sometime during the second half of the present five-year parliamentary term.[22]




Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )


Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: