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ENGLAND

England

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For other uses, see England (disambiguation).
England
Flag Royal Banner
MottoDieu et mon droit  (French)
“God and my right”[1][2]
AnthemNone (de jure)
God Save the Queen (de facto)
Location of  England  (orange)– in the European continent  (camel & white)– in the United Kingdom  (camel)
Location of  England  (orange)– in the European continent  (camel & white)
– in the United Kingdom  (camel)

Capital
(and largest city)
London
51°30′N 0°7′W
Official language(s) English (de facto)[note 1]
Recognised regional languages Cornish
Ethnic groups (2009
[3][4])
87.5% White, 6.0% South Asian, 2.9% Black, 1.9% Mixed race, 0.8% Chinese, 0.8% Other
Demonym English
Government Non-devolved state within a constitutional monarchy
 – Monarch Elizabeth II
 – Prime Minister of the United Kingdom David Cameron MP
Legislature Parliament of the United Kingdom
Area
 – Total 130,395 km2
50,346 sq mi
Population
 – 2008 estimate 51,446,000[5]
 – 2001 census 49,138,831
 – Density 395/km2
1,023/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2006 estimate
 – Total $1.9 trillion
 – Per capita US$38,000
GDP (nominal) 2006 estimate
 – Total $2.2 trillion[dubiousdiscuss]
 – Per capita $44,000
Currency Pound sterling (GBP)
Time zone GMT (UTC0)
 – Summer (DST) BST (UTC+1)
Date formats d/m/yy (AD)
Drives on the left
ISO 3166 code GB
Internet TLD .uk[note 2]
Calling code 44
Patron saint Saint George
Wikisourcehas original text related to this article:

England (Listeni /ˈɪŋɡlənd/) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.[6][7][8] It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west and the North Sea to the east, with the English Channel to the south separating it from continental Europe. Most of England comprises the central and southern part of the island of Great Britain in the North Atlantic. The country also includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.

The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but it takes its name from the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in AD 927, and since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world.[9] The English language, the Anglican Church, and English law—the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world—developed in England, and the country’s parliamentary system of government has been widely adopted by other nations.[10] The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world’s first industrialised nation.[11] England’s Royal Society laid the foundations of modern experimental science.[12]

England’s terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north (for example, the mountainous Lake District, Pennines, and Yorkshire Dales) and in the south west (for example, Dartmoor and the Cotswolds). London, England’s capital, is the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures.[note 3] England’s population is about 51 million, around 84% of the population of the United Kingdom, and is largely concentrated in London, the South East and conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East and Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century. Meadowlands and pastures are found beyond the major cities.

The Kingdom of England—which after 1284 included Wales—was a sovereign state until 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain.[13][14] In 1800, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922, the Irish Free State was established as a separate dominion, but the Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act 1927 reincorporated into the kingdom six Irish counties to officially create the current United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

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